Institutes of the Christian Religion (1559) - John Calvin
Book 2 - God the Redeemer
Chapter 8 - Explanation of the Moral Law:
The 10 Commandments
Sections 35-38 - The Fifth Commandment
Section 35 - The wide scope of this commandment
This means anyone God has placed over us - 1 Tim 5:17.
Earthly fathers and lords (rulers) share the title with God,
because the office shares "a spark of His splendor."
Section 36 - The demand
It doesn't matter if the person is worthy of his office; God put him there.
Honor means reverence (Ex 21:17; Lev 20:9; Prov 20:20)
Honor means obedience for children (Deut 21:18-21; Eph 6:1-3; Col 3:20)
Honor means gratitude (Matt 15:4-6).
Section 37 - The promise
This applies to us, not just Israel - Eph 6:2.
A faithful life cut short is not God breaking His promise:
it is "a symbol of God's kindness,"
and not a good in itself, without God's favor.
Section 38 -The threat
A life cut short is the implied curse for disobedience.
Again, exceptions of long-lived rebels don't undo the command.
We should only obey superiors "in the Lord" - Eph 6:1,
not disobeying God as we do so.